Design check of plates according to Hong Kong Standard

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Plates in CBFEM are modeled by shell finite elements. The plastic strain must not exceed the limit.

The resulting equivalent stress (HMH, von Mises) and plastic strain are calculated on plates. When the design yield strength, \(p_y\) (Cl. 3.1.2), on the bilinear material diagram is reached, the check of the equivalent plastic strain is performed. The limit value of 5 % is suggested in Eurocode (EN 1993-1-5 App. C, Par. C8, Note 1). This value can be modified in Code setup but verification studies were made for this recommended value. 

Plate element is divided into 5 layers and elastic/plastic behavior is investigated in each of them. The program shows the worst result of all of them.

Stress may be a little bit higher than design yield strength. The reason is the slight inclination of the plastic branch of the stress-strain diagram, which is used in the analysis to improve the stability of the calculation.

\[ p_y = \min \left \{ \frac{Y_s}{\gamma_{m1}}, \frac{U_s}{\gamma_{m2}} \right \} \]


  • \(p_y\) – design yield strength
  • \(Y_s\) – characteristic yield strength
  • \(U_s\) – minimum tensile strength
  • \(\gamma_{m1}\) – material factor (Table 4.1); default value \(\gamma_{m1} = 1\) editable in Code setup
  • \(\gamma_{m2}\) – material factor (Table 4.1); default value \(\gamma_{m2} = 1.2\) editable in Code setup

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